The Authoritative Dictionary Definition on the Internet and in Print!


  The Authoritative Dictionary Definition on the Internet and in Print!

►CAVAET: The Wikipedia entry for "communicology" is an unauthorized, abberant, partial copy of the copyrighted lexical information on our present page. The Wikipedia entry "information" should not be used in scholarly research and writing because it contains serious errors in documented historical and theoretical facts.

♦ NOUN: Communicology is the science of human communication. 

One of the Human Science disciplines, it uses the logic based research methods of semiotics and phenomenology to explicate human consciousness and behavioral embodiment as discourse within global culture. Cognate subdiscipline applications include:

(1) Art Communicology: 

the study of aesthetic media as cultural transmission and diffusion with particular emphasis on visual arts and performative creativity, e.g., cinematics, dance, folklore narrative, music, iconography, and painting. 

(2) Clinical Communicology:

a therapeutic focus on (a) communication disorders within the context of speech pathology and audiology or (b) behavioral mistakes caused by pragmatic and semantic misinterpretations.

(3) Media Communicology:

the anthropological, psychological, and sociological analysis of human behavior in the context of electronic media, photography, telecommunications and visual communication.

(4) Philosophy of Communicology:

the study of communication as the larger context for the explication of language and linguistics, cognitive science, and cybernetics within the philosophical subdisciplines of metaphysics, epistemology, logic, and axiology (aesthetics, ethics, rhetoric).

Common originary attribution of the term Communicology

is to Wendell Johnson (1958) and Franklin H. Knower (1962); international adoption of the term is attributed to Vilém Flusser (1973), Joseph A. DeVito (1978), Mehdi Mohsenian-Rad (1989), and Richard L. Lanigan (1988,1992, 1997a, 2008). The International Communicology Institute was founded in the U.S.A. in the year 2000.


♦ ADJECTIVE: Communicological


♦ COGNATE: Communicologist, a person who studies communicology.


• Archaic Cognates:


• Symbology—the science of symbolism in human communication. 


• Symbologist—a person who studies symbolism (e.g., "symbologist Robert Langdon" in the Dan Brown novels).


• General Semantics—the human science of semantic misunderstanding: resolving the semiotic confusion of message meaning and code signification; the normal linguistic ambiguity of "double articulation", and, the pathological "double bind" articulation. "Time-Binding" signifies the human process of Symbology; See ►Institute for General Semantics at: www.generalsemantics.org


♦ ETYMOLOGY: Latin communicatio, from communicatus (past participle of communicare to communicate) + Latin logica, from Greek logik, from feminine of logikos of speech, argumentative, logical, from logos, word, reason, speech, account.


♦ PHILOLOGY: Latin/Greek combinatory precedent: Socio + ology [Latin socius + Greek logos] coined by Auguste Comte. Originary attribution of the term is to Wendell Johnson (1958) and Franklin H. Knower (1962).


   Nominal Category Designations in Use on the Internet:


Advertising Communicology      

Applied Communicology                

Art Communicology                           

Business Communicology                       

Clinical Communicology                                                          

Cultural Communicology                                  

Educational Communicology                                                   

Ethical Communicology                          

Ethnographic Communicology        

Forensic Communicology                                              

Group Communicology                          

Hazard Communicology                        

Health Communicology                        

Intercultural Communicology                             

International Communicology

Internet Communicology                      

Management Communicology                

Marketing Communicology                      

Media Communicology

Medical Communicology                      

 Nursing Communicology

Organizational Communicology                 

Psychological Communicology               

Psychiatric Communicology                                 

Rhetorical Communicology                

Security Communicology            

Semiotic Communicology  

Sociological Communicology 


Workplace Communicology                      

Xenophobic Communicology


AUTHOR: Richard L. Lanigan, Ph.D. 

♦ Original Text Date: 12 December 2007

♦ Latest Text Update:  JULY  2020


► Copyright:

Open Source; no restriction on reproduction, except that Author and I.C.I. Citation Attribution are required to avoid ethical and legal plagiarism. AUTHOR © RIGHTS are applicable under the USA COPYRIGHT ACT, SECTION 107.


► Citation Form:

Richard L. Lanigan [ORCID: 0000-0002-5017-8822], "Communicology: Lexicon Definition" (2007—2020), http://www.communicology.org/content/definition-communicology




Please send copies of publications (or full citations of the work) for consideration to Richard L. Lanigan at rlanigan@mac.com. All etymology references are verified at the United States Library of Congress located on "Capitol Hill" in Washington, DC, USA. The ICI Executive Office at Capitol Hill Tower is located a few blocks away.




Key Historical Dates are Shown in Bold Font.



ICI Logo 1920s


1922. Edmund Husserl, “Syllabus of a Course of Four Lectures on ‘Phenomenological Method and Phenomenological Philosophy’”, JBSP: The Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology, vol. 1, no. 1, 1970, pp. 18-23. [Trans. of the lecture series syllabus given in German at the University College, London, UK on June 6, 8 9, 12, 1922. In Lecture 1 (p. 18), Husserl says the purpose of the lecture is to explain “transcendental sociological* phenomenology having reference to a manifest multiplicity of conscious subjects communicating with one another”.]  *Evidence suggests "sociological" is a mistranslation of "intersubjective".


1923. Charles K. Ogden and I. A. Richards, The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and the Science of Symbolism (Reprint: New York: Harcourt, 1946). “[Appendix D, Section 1. Husserl”  (pp. 269-272 summarizes the content and translates quotations including the one given above at 1922, p. 18) from Edmund Husserl’s London Lectures. The first book in English to discuss Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology of communication and to specify the function of semiotics.]  See below: Wilbur Marshall Urban, 1939.



1923-1996. Ernst Cassirer, Philosophie der symbolischen Formen, 3 vols. (Berlin: Bruno Cassirer). Vol. 1, Die Sprache (1923); Vol. 2, Das mythische Denken (1925);  Vol. 3, Phänomenologie der Erkenntnis (1929). Reprinted: 3 vols. (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1964), trans. Ralph Manheim, The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1953-1957). Vol. 1, Language (1953); Vol. 2, Mythical Thought (1955); Vol. 3, The Phenomenology of Knowledge (1957).  Zur Metaphysik der symbolischen Formen, ed. John Michael Krois, Vol. 1 of Ernst Cassirer, Nachgelassene Manuskripte und Texte, ed. John Michael Krois and Oswald Schwemmer (Hamburg: Felix Meiner, 1995, trans. John Michael Krois, The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996). Vol. 4, The Metaphysics of Symbolic  Forms. [First designation of “Communication” as a Cultural Science.]  

1926. Alfred Korzybski, Time-Binding: The General Theory (Lakeville, CN: Institute of General Semantics). 


ICI Logo 1930s


1931. Edward Sapir, “Communication” in  Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (New York: Macmillan), pp. 78-81. Reprint, Selected Writings of Edward Sapir in Language, Culture and Personality, ed. David G. Mandelbaum (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1949), pp. 104-109. [First designation of “Communication” as a Human Science.]


1933. Edward Sapir, “Symbolism” in The Psychology of Culture: A Course of Lectures, reconstructed and ed. Judith T. Irvine. (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2002), pp. 219-238.


1933. Alfred Korzybski, Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics (Lancaster, PA: Science Press; International Non-Aristotelian Library). (Second ed. 1941.) [First book to explicate a phenomenological logic. See Richard  L. Lanigan, 2007a]  Alfred Korzybski founded the Institute of General Semantics in 1938. Also see A.K., Manhood of Humanity (1921; 2nd ed. 1950).


1934. Karl Bühler, Sprachtheorie. Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1934: reprint 1982; trans. Donald R. Goodwin, Theory of Language: The Representational Function of Language (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1990). [The first book in German to analyze Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology of communication; the first modern model of human communication, called the "Organon Model"]. In Greek, organon means "tool" or "instrument" and is often called  "instrumental reason".


1937. Alfred Korzybski, General Semantics Seminar 1937: Olivet College Lectures (Brooklyn, NY: Institute of General Semantics, 3rd edition edited by Homer J. Moore, Jr., 2002).


1939. William Marshall Urban, Language and Reality: The Philosophy of Language and the Principles of Symbolism (New York: Books of Libraries Press / Arno Books, reprint ed. 1971).  [The first book in English to analyze Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology of communication.] Based on a reading of Ogden and Richards (1923), Husserl’s London Lectures are quoted on pages 258-259: "Husserl … tells us that the ‘prerequisite’ of linguistic communication, when properly understood, is ‘a transcendental monadism, a transcendental sociological phenomenology having reference to a manifest multiplicity of conscious subjects, communicating with each other’."  Urban is first to specify semiotic phenomenology as the method of Communicology: "The essence of language is the representation, Darstellung, of one element of experience through another—the bi-polar relation between the sign or symbol and the thing signified or symbolized, and the consciousness of that relation (1)." [p. 66].    Footnote 1: "The two most important influences in the development of this speech-notion are said to be F. de Saussure, Cours de linguistique genérale, edited by Ch. Bally (1916, 1922), and E. Husserl, Logische Untersuchungen, second edition, 1913."


ICI Logo 1940s


1946. Wendell Johnson, People in Quandaries: The Semantics of Personal Adjustment (New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers; ISBN: 0918970-27-X). [“Outline of the Process of Communication: Stages, Functions, and Possible Disorders”, pp. 71-81.]


ICI Logo 1950s


1951. Jürgen Ruesch and Gregory Bateson, Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry (New York: W. W. Norton and Co. Inc.).  Reprint editions, 1968, 1987. [Table D (p. 277) First designation of the Discipline of Human Communication and it scientific divisions: (1) Intrapersonal, (2) Interpersonal, (3) Group, (4) Cultural.]


1953-1972.  Jürgen Ruesch, Semiotic Approaches to Human Relations (Approaches to Semiotics, Vol. 25), (The Hague and Paris: Mouton). [Reprint edition of Ruesch’s collected articles and books in one volume; original sources are given on pages 8-10]. 

Key Articles Include: 

1953. “Synopsis of the Theory of Human Communication”, pp. 47-94.

1955. “Nonverbal Language and Therapy”,  pp. 727-738.

1957. “Principles of Human Communication”, pp. 125-137.

1960. “Mass Communication and Mass Motivation”, pp. 345-353. 

1967. “Technology and Social Communication”, pp. 260-276. 

1967. “The Social Control of Symbolic Systems”, pp. 277-300.

1969. “Action Models”, pp. 393-412. 

1969. “A General Systems Theory Based on Human Communication”, pp.  450-465.


1975. Jürgen Ruesch, Knowledge in Action: Communication, Social Operations, and Management (New York, NK: Jason Aronson, Inc.).  First major book on Organizational Communicology.

 Table of Contents:
Part I: The Sociocultural Framework
Chapter 1: The Contemporary Scene.
Part II: The Structure and Processes of Social Operations.
Chapter 2: People
Chapter 3: Situations
Chapter 4: Institutions and Corporations
Chapter 5: Communiucation
Chapter 6: Decision-Making
Chapter 7: Action
Chapter 8: Casual Contacts and Systematized Relationships
Part III: Social Operations of the Private Person
Chapter 9: Prerequisites for Individual Action
Chapter 10: The exertion of Influence
Chapter 11: Social Games
Part IV: Professional Operations
Chapter 12: Identifying Patients and Clients
Chapter 13: Analysis of the System
Chapter 14: Formulating the Problem
Chapter 15: Strategies in Problem-Solving
Chapter 16: Emergencies and Operations in the Health Field
Chapter 17: Interventions
Part V: Theory of Knowledge in Action
Chapter 18: Summary
Appendix I: Procedural Directives
Appendix II: Operational Glossary
General Bibliography
List of Tables:
1. Action, Activity, and Actor
2. Examples of Situations
3. Qualifications required by Organizations
4. The Assessment of Communication
5. Decision-Making in systems of Different Sizes
6. Adaptation of Information for Action
7. Problems Encountered by the Professional
8. Solutions Available to the Professional
9. External Resources
10. Age-Determined Variations of Treatment
11. Community Health Resources
12. Aims of Psychiatric Intervention
13. The Assessment of Action
14. Selection of Options of behavior


1956, 1958. See below, Roman O. Jakobson (1962-2002) [Communication Theory]


1958 [1968]. Wendell Johnson [1906-1965], “Communicology?”,  compiled and edited by Dorothy W. Moeller, ASHA [Journal of the American Speech and Hearing Association] 1968, vol. 10, pp. 43-56. [Second known use of the term “Communicology” to name the Human Science; influenced by the General Semantics movement originating with Alfred Korzybski [1879-1950], (see 1926 and 1933 above) at the University of Chicago, USA; see Wendell Johnson 1946 above, see Elwood Murray in Knower 1962 above.] From p. 45: “It [Communicology] was first proposed in 1958 or 1959 in the course of discussions carried on by Kenneth O. Johnson, Raymond Carhart, Wendell Johnson, and various other members of the profession concerned with the need for a suitable single name; subsequently they and others have used the term repeatedly, occasionally in published statements, for example, Jack Matthews” [see 1964 below]. From p.46: “. . . There is a need for a blanket term to serve as a name for the emerging large field represented by the rapidly increasing number of scientists, engineers, scholars, teachers, and clinicians who are distinctively concern with communication. “Communicology” appears to be a possible name for this field. By means of suitable adjectives the various areas of specialization within the general field could then be indicated. We might speak, for example, of oral communicology, literary communicology, telephonic communicology, mass media communicology—and, if preferred, speech communicology and hearing communicology.”  Note: This article chronicles an active discussion of the name Communicology published in various issues of ASHA from September 1959 through November 1966.  Wendell Johnson was President of the International Society for General Semantics in 1945 and ASHA President in 1950.


ICI Logo 1960s


1960. Kenneth G. Johnson, General Semantics: An Outline Survey, 3rd. edition revised (Fort Worth, TX: Institute of General Semantics, 2004). ["1.0  Humans differ from other animals in that we can create, innovate, and communicate across time through symbols."]


1962. Franklin H. Knower, “A Model for Communicology”, The Ohio Speech Journal [annual publication], vol. 1, pp. 181-187; diagram, p. 183.  [First known use of the term “Communicology” to name the Human Science; First known use of the term “Communicology” in a journal article] From p. 182: “The model we present is called a model of communicology. We believe there is a need for some such label. The scholar who strives to become an expert in this area can become a communicologist. He may also be a psychologist, an audio-visual specialist, a student of speech, a director of a theatre, a political scientist, television talent, a journalist, etc.” “Any realistic communicology in today’s world must be multi-disciplinary. There are few disciplines in the modern college curriculum which do not have some interest in communication.”  [Franklin H. Knower [1901-1993] and Elwood  Murray [1897-1988] were the founders of the International Communication Association in 1950, which evolved from The National Society for the Study of Communication (of which Murray was President). Elwood Murray also founded the General Semantics Institute in 1967 at the University of Denver and was its first Director. Richard L. Lanigan was the founding Chairperson of the Philosophy of Communication Division (no. 9) in the International Communication Association meeting 29 May to 4 June 1977 at the first International Congress on Communication Science in Berlin, Germany.]


1962-2002. Roman Osipovîch Jakobson, Selected Writings (9 vols.), Vol. 1, Phonological Studies, 1962, 2nd ed. 1971, 3rd ed. 2002; Vol. 2, Word and Language, 1971; Vol. 3, Poetry of Grammar and Grammar of Poetry, ed. Stephen Rudy, 1981; Vol. 4, Slavic Epic Studies, 1966; Vol. 5, On Verse, Its Masters and Explorers, ed. Stephen Rudy and Martha Taylor, 1979; Vol. 6, Early Slavic Paths and Crossroads: Part 1 and Part 2, ed. Stephen Rudy, 1985: Vol. 7, Contributions to Comparative Mythology; Studies in Linguistics and Philology, 1972-1982, ed. Stephen Rudy, 1985; Vol. 8, Completion Volume One: Major Works, 1976-1980, ed. Stephen Rudy, 1988; Vol. 9, A Complete Bibliography of his Writings, compiled and ed. Stephen Rudy, 1990. (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter). [Unless noted, volumes were edited by Jakobson.]

Key articles include:

1932, 1933, trans. 1976. “Is the Film in Decline?”, vol. 3, pp. 732-739.

1954, 1956, 1957. “Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances”, vol. 2, pp. 239-259. [Discusses metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and Semiotics as the general science of signs in communication.] 

1956. “Metalanguage as a Linguistic Problem”, vol. 7, pp. 113-127. [First partial presentation of the Theory of Communication and the diagrammatic model; acknowledged (p. 24) extension of Karl Bühler’s Organon Model of 1934.] Printed version of Jakobson’s Presidential Address (27 December 1956) to the Linguistic Society of America.

1958, rev. 1959, rev. 1960. “Linguistics and Poetics”, vol. 3, pp. 18-51.  [First full presentation of the Theory of Communication and the diagrammatic model; acknowledged (p. 115) extension of Karl Bühler’s Organon Model of 1934.] 

1960, 1963, “Parts and Wholes”, vol. 2, pp. 280-284. [Discusses Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology of language.]

1960, 1961. “Linguistics and Communication Theory”, vol. 2, pp. 570-579. [Specifies  Communication Theory, the “rhetorical branch of linguistics”, as distinct from mathematical signal theory, i.e., Information Theory.]

1961, 1963. “Implication of Language Universals for Linguistics”, vol. 2, pp. 580-591. [Jakobson notes his defense of, and the necessity for, a phenomenology of language based in the work of Husserl and Marty during his doctoral examination.] 

1967. “Linguistics in Relation to Other Sciences”, vol. 2, pp. 655-696. [Cites the importance of Husserl, Sapir, and Bühler.]

1967, 1972. “Language and Culture”, vol. 7, pp. 101-112.

1968. “Language in Relation to Other Communication Systems”, vol. 2, pp. 670-708. 

1969. “The Fundamental and Specific Characteristics of Human Language”, vol. 7, pp. 93-97. 

1971. “Retrospect” [for the publication of  Selected Writing: Word and Language, vol. 2], vol. 2, pp. 711-722. [Chronicles the context in which “phenomenological structuralism” is the appropriate description of his work beginning with Brentano, then Husserl and Anton Marty, along with Sapir and Whorf and the foundational work of Cassirer.]

1972. “Verbal Communication”, vol. 7, pp. 81-92. [Argues for the centrality of C. S. Peirce’s semiotic phenomenology in communication theory.]

1973, 1974. “Communication and Society”, vol. 7, pp. 98-100. 

1974, 1975. “A Glance at the Development of Semiotics”, vol. 7, pp. 199-218. [Includes a discussion of Husserl’s “Zur Logik der Zeichen (Semiotik), Peirce, and Saussure.]

1975, 1977. “A Few Remarks on Peirce, Pathfinder in the Science of Language’, vol. 7., pp. 248-253.


1964 [1963]. Jack Mathews, “Communicology and Individual Responsibility”, ASHA [Journal of the American Speech and Hearing Association] vol. 6, pp. 3-7.  [ASHA Presidential Address, 1963 National Convention; First know use of the term by a professional association president. Third known use of the term “Communicology” in a journal article]. From pages 4-5: “As teachers of a future generation of communicologists we must point out our concern with the normal and the deviant of communication; our interest in speech and hearing. We need to make it clear that human communication is dependent upon a coding system and for this reason we are deeply interested in language. Our students must have this broader concept of Communicology. … Viewed in this context education in semantics and linguistics is no less vital than education in physiology or acoustics if we are to give our students the concept of a broad and unified field of Communicology."

1965. Richard Luchsinger and Godfrey E. Arnold, Voice Speech-Language: Clinical Communicology—Its Physiology and Pathology. Wadsworth Publishing Co.


1966. Émile Benveniste, “Communication” in Problemes de linguistique générale. (Paris: Editions Gallimard); trans. Mary E. Meek as Problems in General Linguistics (Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press, 1971), pp. 41-75.


1967. Hubert Griggs Alexander, Language and Thinking: A Philosophical Introduction (New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.).  Revised and enlarged edition under the title The Language and Logic of Philosophy, University of New Mexico Press, 1972; reprint edition, University Press of America, Inc., 1988. [Chapter one is “Communication”. The book relies heavily on Cassirer, Whorf, and Sapir, all at Yale University with Alexander.]  


1968. Hubert Griggs Alexander, “Communication, Technology, and Culture”, The Philosophy Forum (Special Volume, 4 issues: Communication), vol. 7, no. 1 (September), pages 1-40.


1968. Dorothy W. Moeller (compiled and ed.), L. G. Doefler (Intro.), "Wendell Jognson (1906-1965): Communicology?", ASHA, vol. 10 (Februry), pages 43-56.


ICI Logo 1970s


1970. Everett L. Hunt, "Classical Rhetoric and Modern Communicology", Western Speech, vol. 34, no. 1 (Winter), pages 2-7.


1971. Gregory Bateson,  “Communication” in Interaction and Identity (Information and Behavior, Vol. 5), ed. Harmut B. Mokros (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1995), pp. 45-70.  Publication of “Chapter 1: Communication” in Norman A. McQuown (ed.), The Natural History of an Interview, pp. 1-40 (Microfilm Collection on Cultural Anthropology, 15th Series; Chicago: University of Chicago, Joseph Regenstein Library, Department of Photoduplications). Translations: (1) “Communication” in Y. Winkin (ed.), La nouvelle communication (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1981), pp. 116-144; (2) “Comunicación” in Norman A. McQuown (ed.), El Microanalisis de entrevistas: Los Methodos de la Historia Natural Aplicados a la investigacion de la sociedad, de la cultura y de la personalidad (Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Automa de Mexico, 1983), pp. 69-95.


1972. Roman Osipovîch Jakobson, “Verbal Communication” in Communication (A Scientific American Book), ed. Dennis Flanagan, et al. (San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman and Co.), pp. 37-44. [First published in the September 1972 issue of Scientific  American.]


 1972. Thomas A. Sebeok, "Coding in the Evolution of Signalling Behavior", 8-33, in Perspectives in Zoosemiotics (Paris, FR: Mouton).


1973-74. Vilém Flusser, “Was ist Kommunikation?” in Kommunikologie, Schriften 4, ed. Vera Eckstein and Stefan Bollmann (Manheim, GR: Bollmann). English trans. “What is Communication” in Vilém Flusser, Writings, ed. Andreas Ströhl, trans. Erik Eisel (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2002), pp. 3-7.


1974. Elmar Holenstein, Jakobson ou le structuralisme phénoménologique (Paris: Éditions Seghers), trans. [from German Habilitationschrift, Zurich 1974] C. and T. Schelbert as Roman Jakobson’s Approach to Language: Phenomenological Structuralism,  (Bloomington, IN:  Indiana University Press, 1976). 


1974. Dorothy Moeller, “Wendell Johnson: The Addiction to Wonder” from Books at Iowa 20 (April 1974). Available online: www.lib.uiowa.edu/spec-coll/Bai/moeller.htm


1975. See Above, Jürgen Ruesch (1953-1972). [Organizational and Management Communication


1975. Dan P. Millar, Communicology Mythology: Overcoming Communication Myths (Alfred Publishing Co.).


1976. Edmund Leach, Culture and Communication: The Logic by which Symbols Are Connected; An Introduction to the Use of Structuralist Analysis in Social Anthropology (New York: Cambridge University Press).


1977. Richard L. Lanigan, Speech Act Phenomenology (The Hague:  Martinus Nijhoff). Full Text PDF edition available at "Richard L. Lanigan" on Acedemica.edu


1977. Paul Ricoeur,  “Phenomenology and the Social Sciences”,  The Annals of Phenomenological Sociology  vol. 2, pp  145-159. [Discusses the methodology conditions for doing phenomenological research, notably the logic conditions of validity and reliability in which one case {token} is necessary and sufficient to confirm a typology {type) for general depiction {typification}.]


1978. Joseph A. DeVito. Communicology: An Introduction to the Study of Communication. Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc., 1978), page v. [First textbook to use Communicology in the title.]


1979. Richard L. Lanigan, “The Phenomenology of Human Communication,” Philosophy Today vol. 23, no. 1 (Spring), pages 3-15.


1979. Robert T. Craig, “Information Systems Theory and Research: An Overview of Individual Information Processing” in Communication Yearbook 3, ed. Dan Nimmo (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books; International Communication Association), pp. 99-121.  From page 100: “I suggest that the cognitive science approach offers communicology new ways to study messages and message processes, while communicology offers cognitive science a tradition of concern with transaction, coorientation, and rhetorical forms of communication. The interaction of cognitive science with traditional communicological concerns promises to shed new light on human communication.” From page 116, note 1: “I . . . have tried to write the whole review as a communicologist. . . .”.


1979. Ernst Cassirer, Symbol, Myth, and Culture: Essays and Lectures of Ernst Cassirer, 1935-1945, ed. Donald Phillip Verene (New Haven: Yale University Press). Italian trans., Simbolo, mito e cultura (Rome and Bari: Laterza, 1981); Japanese trans., (Kyoto: Mionerva, 1985).


ICI Logo 1980s 


1982. Richard L. Lanigan, “Semiotic Phenomenology in Plato’s Sophist,” Semiotica, 41, nos. 1-4, pp. 221-245.{Reprinted as “Semiotics, Communicology, and Plato’s Sophist” in John Deely (Ed.), Frontiers in Semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986, pp. 199-216.}


1983. Vilém Flusser, Für eine Philosophie der Fotografie (Göttingen, GR: Andreas Müller-Pohle); trans. as Towards a Philosophy of Photography (London, UK: Reaktion Books, Ltd., 2000).


1985. Michael Chanan, "The Reuters Factor Myths and Realities of Communicology: A Scenario", Radical Science no. 16 (Free Association Books); reprinted in Colin Chant, ed., Sources for the Study of Science, Technology, and Everyday Life 1870-1950, vol. 2. London, UK: Open University; Hodder and Stoughton, 1988.


1986. Richard L. Lanigan, "On the Goals of Semiotics [Survey]", compiled by Thomas A. Sebeok, Semiotica, 61, nos. 3-4, p. 381. Full text of Lanigan response: "Semiotics is rapidly becoming the lingua franca of the scholarly world. The primary goals of the semiotic discipline should be (1) to extend the current analysis and discussion of sign theory into new subject matters, especially in the human sciences, and (2) to continue educating our colleagues about semiotic research as the conjunction of animal, human, and machine realities. In every discipline, we need to acknowledge and illustrate the in situ discovery of sign production. This is not another facile call for more interdisciplinary work. Rather, it is a phenomenological challenge to the scholars of each discipline to reexamine their philosophical and theoretical grounding as communicated. It is a mutual demand: to the arts to be systemic as well as intuitive in presentation, and, to the sciences to be creative as well as empirical in abstraction. The all too visible limitations of formal systems, the conventions of hypostatized reality, and the inadequacies of subjective speculation, whether in the sciences or the arts, can be accommodated correctively by the theory of signs. Semiosis offers an immediate and provocative answer to the ‘crisis of modernity’, i.e., the failure of representation as logic, mathematic, and statistic. We must continue to suggest that semiosis is the most appropriate theory and praxis to ground the full range of arts and sciences that will account for the post-modern condition of discourse at the end of this century. Semiotics as the human art and science of communicology can, and should, be a vigorous alternative to the conceptual comforts of traditional art and science. An achievable goal for semiotics is to effectively communicate what it describes, how it defines, and why it interprets."


1986-87. Vilém Flusser, “On the Theory of Communication” in Writings, ed. Andreas Ströhl (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2002; ISBN-13: 9780816635641 ), pp. 8-20. [Original ms. in English]


1987. William B. Gomes, "As Aplicações Sociais da Pesquisa Qualitativa" [Social Applications of Qualitative Research: Semiotic Phenomenology], Psicologia: Reflexāo e Critica (Porto Alegre) vol. 2, no. 1/2, pages 3-12.


1987. Briankle G. Chang, "World and/or Sign: Toward a Semiotic Phenomenology of the Modern World", Human Studies vol. 10, nos. 3-4 (October), pages 311-331.


1987. Richard L. Lanigan, “Foundations of Communicology as a Human Science”, (Special Series on Foundations of the Human Sciences), The Humanistic Psychologist vol. 15, no. 1 (Spring), pages 27-37.  


1988. Richard L. Lanigan, “From Saussure to Communicology: The Paris School of Semiology” in Hermeneutics and the Tradition (Proceedings of the ACPA, Vol. 62), ed. Daniel O. Dahlstrom (Washington, D.C.:  American Catholic Philosophical Association), pp. 124-135.


1988. Richard L. Lanigan, Phenomenology of Communication: Merleau-Ponty’s Thematics in Communicology and Semiology (Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press; ISBN: 0-8207-0199-8), 288 pp. Korean trans. DuWon Lee and Kee-soon Park, Seoul, Korea: Naman Publishing House, 1997; ISBN: 89-300-3554-X. [First research report book in English to use the disciplinary designation Communicology.]


1989. "Self Presentation: Richard Leo Lanigan" in American Phenomenology: Origins and Developments, Eugene F. Kaelin and Calvin O. Schrag (Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers), pp. 424-429.


1989. Mehdi Mohsenian-Rad, [trans. title] Communicology: An Innovative Definition and Model for Communication Process (Tehran, Iran: Soroush Press, 8th Edition, 2007; ISBN: 978-964-376-498-2), 616 pp. .  [First research report book in Farsi to use the disciplinary designation Communicology. Sections in English: (1) “Introduction to the 8th edition” [inserted in the Farsi text], (2) Author Biography, p. 4, (3) “introduction”, p. 5, (4) “What Are the Facts about Communication?”, pp. 6-34.]


ICI Logo 1990s


1992. Richard L. Lanigan, The Human Science of Communicology: The Phenomenology of Discourse in Foucault and Merleau-Ponty (Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press; ISBN: 0-8207-0242-0). 273 pp. [Second research report book in English to use the disciplinary designation Communicology.]


1993. Mehdi Mohsenian-Rad, “Communicology”, Communications [The European Journal of Communication Research/Mouton de Gruyter] vol. 18, no. 3, pages 331-353. [ISSN: 0341-2059]


1994. Alfred Balk, “Showdown at Communicology Gap”, Nieman Reports [Harvard Business School], vol. 48, no. 4 (Winter), pages 63-66 [ISSN: 0028-9817, No. 02198588]


1994. Richard L. Lanigan, “Capta Versus Data:  Method and Evidence in Communicology,”  Human Studies:  A Journal for Philosophy and the Social Sciences, 16,  no. 4 (October), pages 109-130; Printer’s Erratum for p. 119 published in Human Studies vol. 17, no. 1 (1994), p. 285.  Portuguese trans. “Capta versus Data: Método e Evidência em Comunicologia” Revista “Psicologia: Reflexão & Critica” [Brazil] vol. 10, no. 1( 1997), pages 17-46.


1994. Richard L. Lanigan, “The Postmodern Ground of Communicology:  Subverting the Forgetfulness of Rationality in Language,” (Presidential Address to the Semiotic Society of America)  The American Journal of Semiotics vol. 11, nos. 3-4 (1994), pages 5-21.


1995. Du-Won Lee, "A Theoretical Review of the Human Communication Model in Semiotic Phenomenology", Korean Journal of Journalism and Communication Studies, vol. 35, pages 71-105.


1995. Thomas F. N. Puckett, "Reclaiming the Person in Communication: Lanigan’s Semiotic Phenomenology of Communicology", Semiotica vol. 107, nos. 1-2, pages 171-178.


1995. Richard L. Lanigan, “Time Binding: The Conjunction of Semiotics and Communicology,” Cruzeiro Semiótico [Portugal], (Special Issue: Essays in Honor of Thomas A. Sebeok), Nos. 22-25 (1995), pages 325-336.


1996. Briankle G. Chang, Deconstructing Communication Representation, Subject, and Economies of Exchange (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press).


1997a. Richard L. Lanigan, “Communicology” in Encyclopedia of Phenomenology,  general ed. Lester Embree (Boston, Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers; ISBN: 0792329562), pp. 104-110. [First encyclopedia entry on Communicology.]  {2016 translation into Spanish in press}


1997b. Richard L. Lanigan, “Television: The Semiotic Phenomenology of Communication and the Image” in Semiotics of the Media: State of the Art, Projects, and Perspectives, ed. Winfried Nöth, (No. 127: Approaches to Semiotics), (New York and Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter; ISBN: 3110155370),  pp. 381-391.


1997. Roland Posner, Klaus Robering, and Thomas A. Sebeok, Semiotik: Ein Handbuck zu den zeichentheoretischen Grundlagen von Natur und Kultur/Semiotics: A Handbook on the Sign-Theoretic Foiundations of Nature and Culture, 4 Vols. (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter). [Enrtries are variously in German and English with translated titles in the second language.]


1999. Mauricio Tolosa, Comunicologia del la Aldea Global a la Comunidad Global (Chile: Dolmen Ediciones). Available online: www.fundacioncomunicologia.org 


1999. Vilém Fluesser,The Shape of Things: A Philosophy of Design (London, UK: Reaktion Books, Ltd.).


ICI Logo 2000s


2000. Isaac E. Catt, "The Institution of Communitarianism and the Communicology of Pierre Bourdieu", Special Issue: French Semiotics, The American Journal of Semiotics, vols. 15-16, nos. 1-4, pages 187-206 [printed in 2001]. 


2000. Richard L. Lanigan, “The Self in Semiotic Phenomenology: Consciousness as the Conjunction of Perception and Expression in the Science of Communicology,” Special Issue: French Semiotics, The American Journal of Semiotics,  vols. 15-16, nos. 1-4, pages 91-111 [printed in 2001].


2001. Deborah Eicher-Catt, "A Communicology of Female/Feminine Embodiment: The Case of Non-Custodial Motherhood", The American Journal of Semiotics, vol. 17, no. 4, pages 93-130.


2002. Richard L. Lanigan, “The Communicology of the Image”, an article review of Instantanes [Snapshots] by Alain Robbe-Grillet in The American Journal of Semiotics vol. 17, no. 3, pages 255-265. 


2002. Isaac E. Catt, "Communicology and Narcissism: Disciplines of the Heart", Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, vol. 4, no. 4 (October), pp. 389-411.


2002. Ronald L. Jackson, II, "Exploring African American Identity Negotiation in the Academy: Toward a Transformative Vision of African American Communication Scholarship", Howard Journal of Communication, vol. 13, no.1 (January-March), pp. 43-57.


2002. Du-Won Lee, "The Emergence of Communicology as Human Science", Korean Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, pages 127-149.


2003. Vilém Fluesser, Kommunikologie (Frankfurt am Main, GR: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlaag).


2003. Karen L. Ashcraft and D. K. Mumby, Reworking Gender: A Feminist Communicology of Organization (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.).


2003. Isaac E. Catt, "Gregory Bateson’s ‘New Science’ in the Context of Communicology", The American Journal of Semiotics, vol. 19, nos. 1-4, pp. 153-172 [in print Fall 2006].


2003. Du-Won Lee, "A Communicological Inquiry of Silence, Rupture, and Sound", Korean Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 11, no. 1, pages 82-108.


2004. Du-Won Lee, "A Modern Rhetorical Perspective on the Problematic of the Signs and Meaning in Human Communication", Korean Journal of Comunication Studies, vol. 12, no. 1, pages 150-173.


2005. Gary P. Radford, On the Philosophy of Communication (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cenage Learning).


2005. Deborah Eicher-Catt, "Advancing Family Communication Scholarship: Toward a Communicology of the Family", The Journal of Family Communication, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 103-121.


2005. Richard L. Lanigan, "Paradigm Shifts: Recalling the Early ICA and the Later PHILCOM", Communication Review, vol. 8, no. 4, pages 377-382.


2006. Jacqueline M. Martinez, "Semiotic Phenomenology and Intercultural Communication Scholarship: Meeting the Challenge of Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Difference, Western Journal of Communication vol.70, no. 4 (2006), pp. 292-310.


2006. Richard L. Lanigan, “The Human Science of Communicology (Semiotic Phenomenology)” in Semiotics Beyond Limits (Proceedings of the 1st Romanian Association of Semiotic Studies), (Bacau, Romania: Slanic-Moldova), pp. 779-783.


2007a. Richard L. Lanigan, “Communicology: The French Tradition in Human Science” in Perspectives on the Philosophy of Communication, ed. Pat Arneson (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press; ISBN: 1557534314), pp. 168-184. [Discusses the postmodern conditions for phenomenological logic and the le même et l’autre model of discourse, i.e., the quadratic model of self/same//other/different.]


2007b. Richard L. Lanigan,  “The Phenomenology of Embodiment in Communicology” in Phenomenology 2005: Vol. V,  Parts I and II, Selected Essays from North America, 5 vols., ed. Lester Embree and Thomas Nenon (Bucharest, Romania: Zeta Books, 2007), pp. 371-398. [e-book edition available from www.zetabooks.com]


2007. Du-Won Lee, "A Philosophical Inquiry of Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenological Explication on Human Communication", Korean Journal of Communication Studies, vol. 15, no. 4, pages 79-94.


2007. See 1989, Mehdi Mohsenian-Rad, 8th edition of Communicology


2008. Isaac E. Catt, "Philosophical Grounds for Cultural Dialogue in Communicology", Special Issue: Normative Foundations for Cultural Dialogue, International Journal of Communication, vol.18, nos.1-2 (December), pages 73-92.


2008. Richard L. Lanigan, “Communicology: Towards a New Science of Semiotic Phenomenology”, Cultura: International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology [Rumania], vol. 8, pages 212-216, 218


2008. Richard L. Lanigan, “Communicology” in International Encyclopedia of Communication (12 vols.), ed. Wolfgang Donsbach (Oxford, UK and Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Co.; International Communication Association), vol. 8, pp. 3595-3596. [First communication encyclopedia entry for the term Communicology.]


2008. Special Issue: Agency and Efficcy in Communicology, eds. D. Eicher-Catt and I. Catt, Atlantic Journal of Communication, vol. 16, nos. 3-4, pages 119-225. [First Special Issue of a Journal devoted to Communicology]       {All Contributors Are ICI Fellows}


 Deborah Eicher-Catt and Isaac Catt, "What Can It Mean to Say that Communication is ‘Effective’ (and for Whom) in Postmodernity?", pp. 119-121.

Intraprersonal Communicology

Frank Macke, "Intrapersonal Communicology: Reflection, Reflexivity, and Relational Consciousness in Embodied Subjectivity", pp. 122-148.

Eric E. Peterson, "My Body Lies Over the Keyboard: Agency and Efficacy in Weblog Storytelling", pp. 149-163.

Interpersonal Communicology

Corey Anton, "Agency and Efficacy in Interpersonal Communication: Particularity as Once-Occurrence and Noninterchangeability", pp. 164-183.

Social Communicology

Andrew R. Smith, "Violence and the Arts of Resistence: An Expedition in Critical Communicology", pp. 184-210.

Cultural Communicology

Igor E. Klyukanov, "A Communicology of Culture: Handle with Care", pp. 211-225.


2008. Jacqueline M. Martinez, "Semiotic Phenomenology and the ‘Dialectical Approach’ to Intercultural Communication: Paradigm Crisis and the Actualities of Research Practice", Semiotica vol. 169, (2009), pp. 135-153.


2008. Magdy Ma, A Semiotic Phenomenology of Visual Rhetoric: Communication and Perception of Attributes of Cultural Sustainability in the Visual Environment of Public Housing (Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC; UMI Microform 3329300).


2009. Richard L. Lanigan, "Cosmology and Communicology in an Internet World: Semiotic Perspectives of the East (PRC) and the West (USA)", Chinese Semiotic Studies vol. 1 (June 2009), pp. 228-254.


2009. Richard L. Lanigan, "Noam Chomsky’s Complaint about Media Communicology", Glimpse: Journal of the Society for Phenomenology and the Media vol. 11 (2009-2010). [no public distribution]


ICI Logo 2010s


2010. Igor E. Klyukanov, A Communication Universe: Manifestations of Meaning, Staging of Significance (Lanham,MD: Lexington Books).


2010. Richard L. Lanigan, "Communicology: Approaching the Discipline’s Centennial", Special Issue: "Semiotica y Comunicologia", Razón y Palabra, No. 72 (Mayo-Julio),  Coordinacíon: Carlos Vidales, on-line journal: www.razonypalabra.org.mx/ [First Special Issue of an Electronic Journal devoted to Communicology]


2010. Richard L. Lanigan, "Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Communicology" in Consultant Assembly III: In Search of Innovatory Subjects for Language and Culture Courses, ed. Zdzisław Wąsik (Wrocław, Poland: Philological School of Higher Education in Wrocław Publishing; ISBN: 978-83-60097-03-8), pp. 7-32.


2010. Isaac E. Catt and Deborah Eicher-Catt, "Communicology: A Reflexive Human Science" in  Communicology: The New Science of Embodied Discourse, ed. Deborah Eicher-Catt and Isaac E. Catt (Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickson University Press), pp. 15-29. [Third research report book in English to use the disciplinary designation Communicology.] {All contributors are ICI Fellows}


 2010. Isaac E. Catt, "Communication Is Not a Skill: Critique of Communication Pedagogy as Narcissistic Expression" in Communicology: The New Science of Embodied Discourse, ed. Deborah Eicher-Catt and Isaac E. (Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickson University Press), pp. 131-150.  [ISBN: 978-08386-4147.7] 


2010. Richard L. Lanigan, "The Verbal and Nonverbal Codes of Communicology: The Foundation of Interpersonal Agency and Efficacy" in Communicology: The New Science of Embodied Discourse, ed. Deborah Eicher-Catt and Isaac E. Catt (Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickson University Press), pp. 102-128.  


2010. Deborah Eicher-Catt, "Recovering the Voice of Embodied Dialogue: Edward Sapir’s Contribution to Communicology", International Journal of Communication, vol. 20, nos. 1-2 (Jan-Dec), pages 9-33.


 2010. Richard L. Lanigan, "On Homeworld and Community Models of the City: The Communicology of Egocentric and Sociocentric Cultures in Urban Semiotics" in Unfolding the Semiotic Web in Urban Discourse, ed. Diana Teters and Zdzisław Wąsik (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Internationalaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, 2010), pp. 11-46.


 2010. Richard L. Lanigan, "Slugging: The Nonce Sign in an Urban Communicology of Transportation" in Unfolding the Semiotic Web in Urban Discourse, ed. Diana Teters and Zdzisław Wąsik (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Internationalaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, 2010), pp. 143-161.


2011. Vilém Flusser, Gestures, trans. Nancy Ann Roth (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press).


2011. Isaac E. Catt, "The Signifying World between Ineffability and Intelligibility: Body as Sign in Communicology", Review of Communication, vol. 11, no. 2 (18 March), pages 122-144.


2011.  Jacqueline M. Martinez, Communicative Sexualities: A Communicology of Sexual Experience (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield; Lexington Books).


2011.  Richard L. Lanigan, "Small Group Communicology: Nominal Group Technique for Conflict Management in Work Groups" in People and the Value of an Organization, ed. Felicjan Bylok and Leszek Cichoblaziński (Czestochowa, Poland: Faculty of Management, Czestochowa University of Technology), pp. 124-139.


2011. Richard L. Lanigan, "Defining the Human Sciences", Schutzian Research, vol. 3, pp. 9-11.


2011. Richard L. Lanigan, “Husserl’s Phenomenology in America (USA): The Human Science Legacy of Wilbur Marshall Urban and the Yale School of Communicology”, Schutzian Research, vol. 3, pp. 203-217.


2012. Richard L. Lanigan, "Communicology and Culturology: Roland Posner’s Semiosphere" in Sign Culture / Zeichen Kultur, ed. Ernst W. B. Hess-Lüttich (Würzburg, Germany: Verlag Königshausen and Neuman GmbH), pp. 265-282.


 2012. Isaac E. Catt and Deborah Eicher-Catt, "Semiotics in Mainstream American Communication Studies: A Review of Principal U.S.A. Journals in the Context of Communicology", The Review of Communication vol. 12, no. 3 (July 2012), pages 176-200.


2012. Richard L. Lanigan, "The Logic of Phenomena: Semiotic Structures of West and East in Communicology and Culture", Chinese Semiotic Studies vol. 6 (June 2012), pp. 39-77.


2012. Emanuel Kulczycki (red.) and Michał Wendlanr (eds.), Komunikologia: Teoria i Praktyka Komunikacji (Biblioteka Komunikacji Spotecnej — Tome III; Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofi, Uniwersytetu im Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu). ISBN: 978-83-7092-123-1


2013. Deborah Eicher-Catt, "A Semiotic Interpretation of Authentic Civility: Preserving the Ineffable for the Good of the Common", Communication Quarterly vol. 61, no. 1 (January—March), pp. 1-17.


2013. Richard L. Lanigan, "Information Theories" in Theories and Models of Communication, Vol. 1 (Handbooks of Communication Science, 22 vols, 2012-2019), ed. Paul Cobley and Peter Schulz (Berlin, Germany: De Gruyetr Mouton), pp. 59-83 [Chapter 4: key models of communication and information theories].


2013. Special Issue: Communicology and Culture, ed.Isaac E. Catt, Listening: Journal of Communication Ethics, Religion, and Culture vol. 48, no. 2 (Spring), pp. 96-185.


2014. Ronald C. Arnett & Patricia Arneson (eds.), Philosophy of Communication Ethics: Alterity and the Other (Lanham, MD: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press).


2014. Richard L. Lanigan, "Contact Confusion in Perception: West Meets East, One Actuality Becomes Two Realities" in Languages in Contact 2012 (Languages in Contact, vol. 1), ed. Piotr P. Chruszczewski and John R. Rickford (Wroclaw, Poland: Philological School of Higher Education in Wroclaw), pp. 103-125.

2014. Richard L. Lanigan, "Charles S. Peirce on Phenomenology: Communicology, Codes, and Messages, or, Phenomenology, Synechism, and Fallibilism", The American Joiurnal of Semiotics vol. 30, nos. 1-2, pp.139-158.


2014. Isaac E. Catt, "The Two Sciences of Communication in Philosophical Context", The Review of Communication, vol. 14, nos. 3/4, pp. 201-228.

2015. Frank J. Macke, The Experience of Human Communication: Body, Flesh, and Relationship (Lanham,MD: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press).


2017. Isaac E. Catt, Embodiment in the Semiotic Matrix: Communicology in Peirce, Dewey, Bateson, and Bourdieu (Lanham,MD:mFairleigh Dickinson University Press).


2018. Ronald C. Arnett & François Cooren (eds.), Dialogic Ethics (Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Co.).


2018. Andrew R. Smith, Isaac E. Cat, & Igor E. Klyukanov (eds.), Communicology for the Human Sciences: Lanigan and the Philosophy of Communication (New York, NY: Peter Lang Inc.).


2019. Garnet C. Butchart, Embodiment, Relation, Community: A Continental Philosophy of Communication (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press).


ICI Logo 2020s           ICI    Vicentennial    Year    —    2020


2020. Deborah Eicher-Catt, Recovering the Voice in Our Techno-Social World: On the Phone (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books).